Vision Therapy: Evidence-Based Research

Published April 6, 2020

Provided below are references for published research articles on the topic of vision therapy and its effectiveness for the treatment of many vision conditions.

Please note: Some of the references are available as links to original published research or complete articles in PDF format. The articles can also be located on-line at Pubmed.org. and photocopies of the remaining publications can be requested from the International Library, Archives and Museum of Optometry (ILAMO), St. Louis, Missouri. Phone 800-365-2219.

 

1. Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency in Children

Finding: Office-based vision therapy is an effective treatment for children with Convergence Insufficiency.

Published by: Mitchell Scheiman, OD; Susan Cotter, OD, MS; G. Lynn Mitchell, MAS; Marjean Kulp, OD, MS; Michael Rouse, OD, MEd; Richard Hertle, MD; and Maryann Redford, DDS, MPH. ‘Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in children. Archives of Ophthalmology 2005’; 123:14-24.

For the PDF version of this article: Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children. Archives of Ophthalmology, Vol. 126 No. 10, October 2008

 

2. Best Treatment Determined for Childhood Eye Problem

Finding: 75 percent of the children who had weekly office-based vision therapy, coupled with 15 minutes of at-home exercise five days a week, experienced significant improvement in their convergence in 12 weeks.

Published by: Mayo Clinic: ‘Best Treatment Determined for Childhood Eye Problem’ : Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency with Vision Therapy.

 

3. Effective Treatment Identified for Common Childhood Vision Disorder

Finding: Scientists find a more effective treatment for a common childhood eye coordination problem called convergence insufficiency (CI).

Published by: National Eye Institute, ‘More Effective Treatment Identified for Common Childhood Vision Disorder’: Evidence-Based Treatment for Convergence Insufficiency

 

4. Study Reveals Developmental Mechanisms of Eye Movement

Finding: Genes linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and other developmental brain abnormalities, may be playing a role in people who cannot control their eye movements.

Published by: National Eye Institute: Autism and Eye Movements, 2019: Autism linked to Eye Movement Control

 

5. The Amblyopia Treatment Studies: Implications for Clinical Practice

Finding: Patching times can be reduced and still achieve a similar visual improvement

Published by:  Angela M. Chen, Susan A. Cotter: Adv Ophthalmol Optom. 2016 Aug’ The Amblyopia Treatment Studies: Implications for Clinical Practice’; Amblyopia Treatment Studies:

 

6. Vision, ADHD, and Learning

Summary: Selected essential resources and links for teachers and other professions.

Vision, ADHD and Learning: Click here for link to articles:

 

7. Vision, Learning, and Dyslexia

Summary: A policy statement that addresses important issues regarding the identification and treatment process for individuals with learning-related vision problems and dyslexia.

Official Statement, approved by the American Academy of Optometry (AAO), American Optometry Association (AOA), American Foundation for Vision Awareness (AFVA), College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD), Optometric Extension Program Foundation (OEPF).

A Joint Organizational Policy Statement of the American Academy of Optometry and the American Optometric Association. ‘Vision, Learning, and Dyslexia’. 1997. Complete article – PDF version

 

8. Research on the Efficacy of Vision Therapy for Specific Visual Dysfunctions

Finding: Optometric and ophthalmological research supports the efficacy of vision therapy for treatment of the visual dysfunctions discussed in this article.

Published by: Cooper, Jeffrey. Summary of Research on the Efficacy of Vision Therapy for Specific Visual Dysfunctions. Adapted from The Journal of Behavioral Optometry 1998; 9(5):115-119. Complete article – PDF version

 

9. A Joint Organizational Policy Statement of the American Academy of Optometry and the American Optometric Association 

Summary: A policy statement describing the goals of a vision therapy program, and its effectiveness for treatment of a wide variety of vision conditions.

A Joint Organizational Policy Statement of The American Academy of Optometry and the American Optometric Association. ‘Vision Therapy: Information for Health Care and Other Allied Professionals’. 1999. Complete article – PDF version

 

10. Effective Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency

Summary: Although CI is quite common, with reported rates of prevalence ranging up to 13%, this pilot study by Scheiman and colleagues does move forward our understanding of the treatment of this disorder.

Published by: Kushner Burton J. ‘The Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency. Archives of Ophthalmology 2005’, 123:100-101. Complete article – PDF version

 

Additional references and scientific studies:

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  • Cooper J, Burns C, Cotter S, et. al. Optometric Clinical Guideline: Care of the Patient With Accommodative or Vergence Dysfunction. American Optometry Association 1998.
  • Zaba JN, Johnson RA, and Reynolds WT. Vision examinations for all children entering public school – the new Kentucky law. Optometry 2003; 74:149-58

 

  • American Optometric Association. Definition of optometric vision therapy, St. Louis, MO, June 1991.
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