Vision Therapy for TBI Related Vision Conditions

Published April 12, 2020

How does a TBI affect vision?

Vision is the most important source of sensory information. Consisting of a sophisticated complex of subsystems, the visual process involves the flow and processing of information from the eyes and body to the brain.

A traumatic brain injury (TBI)— including a concussion, stroke, or sports-related head injury, can disrupt the visual system, causing a multitude of various disruptions to the visual system.

An eye doctor with experience in neuro-optometric rehabilitation has gained specific training in the diagnosis and treatment of vision problems caused by TBIs.

Below are brief descriptions of the most common visual consequences of a TBI:

  1. Hemianopsia– Visual field loss
  2. Binocular Vision Difficulties– Uncoordinated eye movements
  3. Accommodative Dysfunction– Focusing difficulties
  4. Convergence Insufficiency– Difficulty moving visual fixation inward toward the nose
  5. Ambient Vision Function– Confusion in a busy visual environment, such as the mall or supermarket
  6. Spatial Disorientation– Difficulty organizing visually presented material
  7. Ocular Motor Dysfunction– Inaccurate pursuit, or saccadic eye movements
  8. Diplopia– Double vision
  9. Poor Visual Concentration or Poor Visual Attention
  10. Asthenopia– Eyestrain
  11. Visual Distortion– Objects appear to move or distort in shape
  12. Headaches when reading or during other visually directed tasks- Usually frontal, or temporal
  13. Blurred Vision– Both distant and/or near, and may be intermittent or constant
  14. Squinting or Facial Grimacing During Visual Tasks
  15. Photophobia– Light sensitivity
  16. Loss of Place When Reading– Omitting words, re-reading words
  17. Loss of Visual Awareness– One or both sides
  18. Visual Memory Problems– Inability to remember what was just  read
  19. Nystagmus– Rapid oscillating side to side eye movements
  20. Poorly Centered Standing Balance– Weight shift and/or loss of balance laterally; forward (flexion) or backwards (extension)
  21. Depth Perception Problems– Inability to judge spatial distances
  22. Inaccurate Eye-Hand/Eye-Foot Coordination – Inability to accurately coordinate when reaching or walking
  23. Slow Reaction Time to Visual Stimuli – Poor visual attention
  24. Visual-Perceptual Problems – Inability to recognize faces, words or shapes
  25. Dizziness/Visual-Vestibular Dysfunction – Poor balance
  26. Ptosis – Droopy eyelid
  27. Blepharoparesis – An eyelid which does not blink well or doesn’t close fully